Footnotes for Fish, anchovy, european, canned in oil, drained solids

Check out these 22 delicious anchovy recipes for a fresh outlook on the healthy, salty fish:
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Anchovies are tiny silver fish, about 3 to 8 inches (7.5 to 20 cm) long, from the Mediterranean, especially the Basque area of Spain. Their lower jaw is shorter than their upper jaw.
Anchoveta come from marine fisheries, not fish farms. They are primarily caught with purse seines.
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Before we go any further, let's get a few things straight. All anchovies are not created equal. Fresh out of the water, anchovy is actually a relatively mild fish—light, plump, briny, and pretty universally inoffensive. You can also get your hands on salt-packed varieties, which are minimally processed before packing—they've still got their bones and fins intact, which means that for most preparations, they need to be filleted and soaked in water or milk prior to use. Nutrition facts label for Fish, anchovy, european, canned in oil, drained solids
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Photo provided by FlickrAnchovies also are a major food source for many other fish, seabirds and marine mammals.
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Anchovies are about 4-8 in (10-20 cm) long, with smooth scales, and soft fins. They live in schools made up of many thousands of individuals, often grouped according to size. Anchovies come to surface waters during the spawning season (May-July). Their eggs float on the surface of the and hatch in 3-4 days. Anchovies swim with their mouth open, and feed on , small crustaceans, and fish larvae. When food is scarce, anchovies take turns swimming at the front of their school, where they are more likely to encounter the best food. When a school of anchovies sense danger, it swims together to make a tight ball in which the fish on the inside are more protected, while those on the outer part have a greater chance of being consumed. Anchovies are usually caught by fishermen at night—lights on the boat serve as a lure.They’re traditional. Italians have been putting fish on bread for at least 2,000 years. Ancient Romans topped their flatbreads with , a ubiquitous condiment made of fermented fish parts, and fish was one of the toppings for pizza when the dish was first developed, in Naples during the late-18th and early-19th centuries. The original varieties were pizza bianca, with olive oil and salt, pizza margherita, with milled preserved tomatoes, pizza con pomodori, with sliced tomatoes, and pizza marinara, with tomatoes and anchovies. This was peasant food, and anchovies made an ideal topping—they were cheap, plentiful, and could be preserved almost indefinitely in oil and salt. There’s no indication that Neapolitan sailors, from whom pizza marinara got its name, ever asked for green peppers or pork products on their pies.In Peru, the anchovy known as anchovetta (), is economically important as a source of fish meal and fertilizer. In 1970, the Peruvian anchovetta fishery yielded about 12 million tons of fish, but this crashed to less than 2 million tons in most years between 1973-1987. The collapse of the fishery was likely due to excessive harvesting, although oceanographic and climatic changes associated with warm-water El Niño events may have also played a role. More recently, there has been somewhat of a recovery of the anchovetta stocks, and the fishery has yielded about 4 million tons a year. Other species of anchovy (such as ) are fished in smaller numbers, canned in oil and salt, and sold as a delicacy (these are the tiny fish on pizza, and are also used to make the dressing for Caesar salad). Other species of anchovy are used as fish bait or are added to pet food and feed.There are some American anchovy-lovers, of course, but even these die-hards tend to violate one of the strict, originalist standards for pizza. Pizza marinara, like the other early varieties, was not made with cheese. When Neapolitans started adding dairy, it usually came in the form of a hard grated cheese, like Pecorino Romano, sprinkled on top after cooking. (Parmigiano-Reggiano was expensive and from a different region.) The thick coating of mozzarella was an American addition to the pie; Neapolitan cuisine does not usually mix fish with cheese. Another thing: Tradition dictates that the anchovies used on pizza should be rinsed of salt before baking. Anchovies ought to be savory, not aggressively salty.